Napoleon Bonaparte, French
Napoleon Bonaparte (born August 15, 1769 in Ajaccio, Corsica, died May 5, 1821 on the island of St. Helena) was general, First Consul, then Emperor of the French. He was a conqueror of continental Europe.
Purpose of the living legend of a golden like a black legend, it has now acquired a universal reputation for his military genius (victories of Arcola, Rivoli, the Pyramids, Marengo, Austerlitz, Jena, Friedland, Wagram, La Moskva) and political, but also for his authoritarian regime, and his incessant campaigns (intended or not) costly in lives, resulted in heavy losses finals in Spain, Russia and at Waterloo, and his death in exile at St. Helena in the care of English.
He heads the France from the end of 1799, it is first First Consul of November 10, 1799 to May 18, 1804 and then Emperor of the French under the name Napoleon I from May 18, 1804 to April 11, 1814 , then from March 20 to June 22, 1815. He reorganized and lasting reform state and society. It covers the French territory to full length with 134 departments in 1812, transforming Rome, Hamburg, Barcelona or Amsterdam in towns of French departments. He is also president of the Italian Republic from 1802 to 1805, then King of Italy March 17, 1805 to April 11, 1814, but the mediator of the Swiss Confederation from 1803 to 1813 and protector of the Confederation of the Rhine from 1806 to 1813. He conquered and ruled much of continental Europe and puts his family on the thrones of several European kingdoms: that of Joseph Naples and Spain, Jerome on one of Westphalia, Louis on one of Holland and brother-Joachim Murat in Naples. It also creates a Grand Duchy of Warsaw, not daring to formally restore Polish independence, and submit to its influence of the defeated powers such as Prussia and Austria.
Napoleon tries to put an end to his advantage in the series of wars waged by the European monarchies against France since 1792. He led the men of the Grand Army, which his faithful "veterans" of the Nile and Andalusia to the city of Moscow. As noted British historian Eric Hobsbawm, no army had gone so far since the Vikings or Mongols and also submit as many major powers of the time. Despite many initial victories against the various coalitions assembled and financed by Great Britain (now the United Kingdom in 1801), the imperial era ended in 1815 with the defeat of Waterloo.
Few men have led many conflicting passions that Napoleon Bonaparte. In the words of the historian Steven Englund, "the tone (...) is best to speak of Napoleon would (...) an admiration bordering on awe and constant disapproval bordering on sadness. "
A romantic tradition that Napoleon's early archetype of the great man known to disrupt the world. Elie Faure, in his book Napoleon, who inspired Abel Gance, compared to a "prophet of modern times." Other authors, such as Victor Hugo, make the loser of St. Helena on "Modern Prometheus". The shadow of Napoleon the Great "hangs over many works of Balzac, Stendhal, Musset, but also of Dostoevsky, Tolstoy and many others.
Birth of Napoleon
Napoleon Bonaparte born in Ajaccio, Corsica, August 15, 1769, a year after the Treaty of Versailles by which Genoa cedes the island to France. Its baptismal name Napoleone di Buonaparte (act of July 21, 1771, but his marriage to Josephine de Beauharnais, he signed Napoleone Bonaparte). Born into a family belonging to the nobility of the Italian-Corsican whose presence on the island is documented since the sixteenth century (House of Bonaparte Tuscan origin, it is the fourth child (second child survivors) of Carlo Maria Buonaparte, a lawyer at the Supreme Council of the island, and Maria Letizia Ramolino. His first name Napoleone (or Nabulione by Corsican spelling), is given in memory of an uncle died at Corte in 1767.
In 1777, Charles Bonaparte, representing the nobility, is part of the deputation that the General Assembly of the States of Corsica sent to Versailles to King Louis XVI. On this occasion, the Earl of Marbeuf, governor of the island, is obtained, with the Minister of War Prince Montbarrey a scholarship to enter the second son of Charles at the military school, his older brother Joseph was intended to follow an ecclesiastical career.
On 1 January 1779, Charles Bonaparte brought his two provisionally son Joseph and Napoleon at the College of Autun. Napoleon stayed there three months, the time for his father to take steps to have him admitted to military school to provide for this proof of his nobility and four degrees of tenure for the award of the King. The case is reviewed by a court of weapons Antoine-Marie d'Hozier de Serigny. Charles Bonaparte had provided evidence of noble family, Napoleon was approved by the Ministry of War to enter the military college of Tiron, but due to defections, he is finally admitted to the Royal Military School of Brienne-le Chateau (Dawn).
Napoleon between May 15, 1779 in seventh grade. This is one of twelve colleges in France catering for children of the gentry. It will stay there five years. Regarded as a good student, particularly gifted in mathematics, Bonaparte was not very popular with his comrades in particular because of his admiration for Pascal Paoli. It already shows a propensity to the art of command, organizing military games which he led. A battle of snowballs, he would run a winter, is part of the legend. His brother Joseph, who abandoned his plan to enter the seminary, studied law, Lucien entered the seminary in Aix-en-Provence and her sisters were educated by Madame Campan.
His father visited him June 21, 1784. On 22 September the same year, the sub-inspector of schools-Antoine-Marie Reynaud Serapion Mountains passes younger students Brienne entrance examination to the Ecole Militaire in Paris, where after a year of study they may be assigned to a regiment of artillery, engineering, or naval. Napoleon is deemed fit to enter and four of his classmates. He left school October 17 and arrived five days later in Paris where he joined the company of gentlemen cadets. On February 24, 1785, Charles Bonaparte died of stomach cancer: the role of head of the family falls to the eldest son Joseph, but the court of Napoleon is too weak to lead the family. In September, he passed the final examination of the school to integrate an artillery regiment, interviewed by the mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace. It received a second lieutenant, (42nd out of 58) to examine the artillery, and ordered to reach the destination he has chosen, the artillery regiment of La Fere then in garrison at Valence.
He left Paris to Valencia October 30, 1785. On September 15, 1786, seven years and nine months after his departure, he rests his feet on the island of Corsica on the occasion of his leave of the semester. On 1 June 1788, he left to join his regiment of La Fere stationed at Auxonne and learn his trade as an artilleryman. In his spare time he works hard. His many readings, he accompanies Notes, show the direction in which he conducted his studies and topics that have attracted particular. He left Auxonne to leave early half of September 1789. The 11 or February 12, 1791, the end of his leave back in the city auxonnaise he finally leaves June 14, 1791.
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