Francisco Franco, Spain

Francisco Franco
Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teodulo Franco y Bahamonde, born December 4, 1892 in El Ferrol (Galicia) in Spain and died November 20, 1975 in Madrid, Spain, is a member and leader of the Spanish State. From 1939 to 1975 he presided over an authoritarian government designated as the Franco regime, with the title of Caudillo (guide): "Generalisimo Francisco Franco, Caudillo de Espana por la Gracia de Dios".

Youth and Education
Franco, second in a family of five children, born in El Ferrol, a port in Galicia. True Ghetto military is an environment marked by strong military tradition and dedication to the state, where the Franco family, which belongs to the gentry, has lived for seven generations. Her father, Nicolas Franco Salgado-Araujo, was surveyor-general of the Navy. Womanizer, he is not comfortable in the highly conservative of El Ferrol. His mother, Pilar Bahamonde y Pardo de Andrade, is a very pious woman, very attached to her children. Francisco is baptized in the parish of San Francisco Officers' Quarters December 17, 1892.

He was first sent to a private school, then spent two years at College of the Sacred Heart, before joining the Naval School of preparation. Average student, he was naturally destined for the Navy, as his family tradition incites and like all children of El Ferrol. The closure of the Naval Academy in the city in 1907 forced him to look elsewhere. On August 29, 1907, when he entered the Infantry Academy in Toledo. The same year his father was promoted to Madrid, tired of the military closed the El Ferrol. His relations with his wife having deteriorated, he insists that his family did not follow. We learned shortly after he had a mistress in town: the separation is final.

The Academy of Toledo is mediocre: the entrance examination is an examination of the control of the four arithmetic operations and a quick check of the physical constitution. His courses are also quite summary. In 1910, Franco 251st out of 312. The poor performance must nevertheless be relativized in the light of his age: he is only 18 years while his comrades are mostly aged 20 or 21 years. On 13 July he was promoted segundo teniente, that is to say sub-lieutenant.

The question of the meaning of the attitude of Franco and the interpretation of this uprising is controversial and remains a subject of lively political debate in Spain. According to the historian Franco Ricardo de la Cierva it was for Franco to save Spain from chaos. These interpretations, which date back to the official historiography of the Franco regime saw a revival in the 1990s, particularly with the publication of the book by Pio Moa: for Pio Moa, Franco did nothing to oppose projects revolutionaries who were led by the left since 1934. If Pio MB received support from historian Stanley Payne, he was strongly criticized by many academic historians. Taking an opposite position, historians like Marta Bizcarrondo emphasize the European context which existed since 1933 and the low confidence that the Spanish socialists could have on democracy. For the historian Bartolome Bennassar must consider "in July 1936 as a complex interactive process in which all participated, left and right". If today a majority of the community of historians is the relationship between the position since 1934 and the uprising of 1936, this does not mean legitimate in his eyes the coup of July. Furthermore studies have multiplied aimed to establish a clear picture, free of partisan concerns and issues of memory, since the 1930s, the situation had been exploited by one side or the other: and Jean-Fran├žois Berdah without denying the violence in Spain in early 1930 noted "The fact is that the" popular rage "has been widely publicized - and exaggerated - by the conservative press, then by the devotees of Franco's Spain in Spain and abroad, as opposed to the young democracy aroused aversion. If unanimity is not yet established on the balance sheet, we must distinguish scientific discussion of its extensions policies and its perception by the public, the way the war is still an issue of high memory in contemporary Spain.

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