Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini, Italy
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini,
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (born July 29, 1883 at Dovia di Predappio in the province of Forli-Cesena in the Emilia-Romagna in Italy, died April 28, 1945 at Giulino di Mezzegra), is a journalist, politician and dictator Italian.
Founder of Fascism, he was Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy, with dictatorial powers, of October 31, 1922 to July 25, 1943, the first marshal of the March 30, 1938 to July 25, 1943, and president of the Italian Social Republic September 1943 to April 1945. It is commonly designated as Duce, a word derived from Latin Dux meaning "leader" or "Guide".
He was first member of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) and director of the socialist daily Avanti! from 1912. Anti-interventionist believes in the years preceding the First World War in 1914, he changed his opinion of them supported the war into Italy. Expelled from the PSI in November 1914, he founded his own newspaper, Il Popolo d'Italia (The People of Italy) taking nationalistic positions close to those of the petty bourgeoisie. In the immediate postwar period, taking advantage of the dissatisfaction of the "victory amputated, he founded the National Fascist Party (PNF) in 1921 and appears in countries with a political nationalist, authoritarian, anti-socialist and anti-union, which earned him support of the petty bourgeoisie and part of the middle class and industrial land.
In the context of strong political and social instability following the Great War, it is the seizure of power by forcing institutions with the help actions squadristi and intimidation which culminated October 28, 1922 with the March on Rome. Mussolini gets paid by the government constitute October 30, 1922. In 1924, after the disputed election victory and the murder of Socialist Deputy Giacomo Matteotti, Mussolini assumes full responsibility for the situation and urges the dictatorship in Italy.
After 1935, he approached the German National Socialism of Adolf Hitler, with whom he established the Pact of Steel (1939). Convinced of a conflict early, he entered the Second World War on the side of Nazi Germany. After the Italian defeat and outvoted by the Grand Council of Fascism July 24, 1943, he was arrested by order of the king. Liberated by the Germans, it establishes the Northern Italy Italian Social Republic. On April 25, 1945, while trying to flee to the Valtellina disguised as a German soldier, he was captured by partisans who shot him with his mistress Clara Petacci.
The birth and origin of the name
Blacksmith's son Alessandro Mussolini and Rosa Maltoni teacher, he was born July 29, 1883 in a small house in Costa dei Varani, a hamlet in the town of Dovia di Predappio in the province of Forlì-Cesena in Emilia-Romagna.
The first name "Benito Amilcare Andrea" is given him by his father socialist on the verge of anarchism want to pay tribute to Benito Juarez independence hero and former Republican President of Mexico, Amilcare Cipriani Italian patriot Socialist and Andrea Costa first elected Socialist deputy in the Italian Parliament.
The young Mussolini attended the first two classes in elementary Dovia, then Predappio (1889-1891). He entered the Salesian College of Faenza (1892-1894). It is an unruly student, even violent: it just missed the reference in 1893 when he injured one of his classmates with a knife and he was expelled for another argument. He continued his studies at college Carducci Forlimpopoli where he obtained in September 1898 the lower technical diploma.
That Forlimpopoli under the influence of his father that Mussolini closer to socialist activism in 1900 and is the Italian Socialist Party. He finished his studies in 1901 obtaining the degree. On February 13, 1902, he was appointed deputy master in elementary school Pieve Saliceto, hamlet Gualtieri.
On June 9, 1902, he finished the school year and, to escape military service, established in Lausanne in the canton of Vaud, after having stayed in two other cities in Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains and Orb. It fits with the bricklayers' union and tacticians whom he became the secretary. He published his first article on The avvenire del lavoratore (The future of worker). He was arrested by police on the morning of July 24, 1902, under the arches of the Great Bridge in Lausanne, where he had spent the night for vagrancy. In his pockets were found his passport, his diploma from the Normal School, and 15 cents.
Until November 1904, Mussolini lived in Switzerland, moving from city to city and holding casual (mason, laborer, etc..). He was expelled from a district twice: June 18, 1903, he was arrested as a Socialist agitator, kept in prison twelve days and deported June 30, April 9, 1904, he was imprisoned for seven days in Bellinzona because of a false permit. He overcame his difficulties with the help of socialists and anarchists of the canton of Ticino.
During those years, he worked as a journalist in local periodicals of inspiration including the Socialist proletario. He studied at the Faculty of Social Sciences at Lausanne, where he attended classes at the economist Vilfredo Pareto, acerbic critic of liberal democracy.
At that time, he ranks in the revolutionary wing of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI), led by Arturo Labriola and sends articles to the Milanese newspaper Avangardia socialista. It was during this period he displayed the greatest ideological affinity with the revolutionary syndicalism.
In 1904, he met Angelica Balabanova socialist activist. He also met another figure of Italian socialism in exile Serrati. He speaks with the evangelical pastor Alfredo Taglialatela on the theme of God's existence.
The return to Italy
In November 1904, because of the amnesty granted on the birth of the heir to the kingdom, Mussolini returned to Italy when he is under sentence for refusing military service. He performs his military service, posted December 30, 1904 the Tenth Regiment Bersagliere Verona and he obtained a certificate of good conduct. Meanwhile, his mother died January 19, 1905. Freed, Mussolini returned to Dovia di Predappio September 4, 1906 and is an alternate master to Tolmezzo 15 November until the end of the school year. In November 1907, he obtained the authorization to teach French and March 1908 he obtained the office of Professor of French at the College of Oneglia where he teaches Italian, history and geography. In Oneglia, he led the Socialist weekly The Lima under the pseudonym "Vero Eretico (true heretic).
He returned to Predappio where he led a strike of day laborers. On July 18, 1908, he was arrested for threats against an officer of organizations. Held, he was sentenced to three months in prison but was allowed bail. In September he was again imprisoned for ten days to be held in Meldola an unauthorized meeting. In November, he moved to Forlì, where he lives with his father who creates with his girlfriend Anna Lombardi (Guidi widow, mother of the future Duce's wife) It bersagliere restaurant. During this period, Mussolini wrote in Pagine Libere (Free pages), journal of revolutionary syndicalism in Lugano edited and directed by Angelo Oliviero Olivetti, Article La filosofia della forza (Philosophy of Force) where he refers to the Nietzsche.
In February 1909, he moved to Trento, where he is secretary of the Labor and directs the avvenire del lavoratore (The future of worker). On March 7, it takes a journalistic joust with Alcide De Gasperi orientation Catholic, director of periodical Il Trentino. On 10 September he was imprisoned in Rovereto dissemination of newspapers instigators of violence against the Empire of Austria and 29 he was expelled and returned to Forli.
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