Mao Zedong, China
Mao Zedong, or Mao Tse-tung or Mao Tse-tung or Mao Tse-Tung is a politician and military leader of China, founder and leader of the People's Republic of China. Son of wealthy peasants, he was born in Shaoshan in Hunan Province December 26, 1893, and died in Beijing September 9, 1976.
One of the founders of the Communist Party of China (Shanghai, 1921), Mao Zedong came gradually to recognize it as the supreme leader, especially during the episode of the Long March (1934-1935). After years of guerrilla war against the nationalist Kuomintang led by Chiang Kai-shek, and against the Japanese invaders during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), Mao emerged victorious in the final phase of the Chinese civil war with the victory of the People's Liberation Army (1949). It proclaims the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949 in Beijing, he will be president from 1954 to 1959. His main job, which he held until his death in 1976 and made him the leader of the regime, were those of Chairman of the Communist Party and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, the first guaranteeing control of the Party and the second that of the armed forces.
Mao Zedong imposed on the population collectivism and the Communist party dictatorship, by first following closely the Soviet model. On behalf of the definition of a "Chinese road to socialism", he gradually won people then the USSR and was the direct inspiration for the Great Leap Forward (1958-1960), economic policy has resulted in campaigns by the largest and most deadly famine has ever experienced the twentieth century.
Mis therefore sidelined by his colleagues, he lifted the Chinese students against the party leadership to regain power, leaving China to the unrestrained violence of the Red Guards during the Cultural Revolution confused (1966-1969). Having eliminated his rivals, disgraced the Red Guards and restored order in his favor, he was the object of a cult of personality brought to a climax and then approached the most popular in China a totalitarian state ( 1969-1976). It began, however, an international detente and rapprochement with the West, which allowed the reinstatement of China on the world (coming to the United Nations, 1971), and left his loyal Prime Minister Zhou Enlai declare the program "Four modernizations (1975). He died without naming a successor, and China rehabilitated shortly after a number of his victims, while significantly reducing political control over society and being open to some form of market economy.
The theoretical works of Mao and his political practice gave birth to the Marxist-Leninist known of Maoism.
Early life revolutionary
Mao Zedong was the eldest son of a relatively prosperous family in Shaoshan in the department of Xiangtan, Hunan Province. His ancestors were from Jiangxi province during the Ming dynasty and settled as farmers. His native tongue was not Mandarin but xiang dialect largely intelligible other Chinese but who remain characteristic of his speeches, but his weak language ability: he never will master Putonghua, the standard Chinese language as its own regime put in place.
In 1908, his father married one of his nieces, Luo, four years her senior. In 1936, Mao claimed to Edgar Snow had never lived with her. She died in 1910. Through this marriage, Mao became a fierce opponent of arranged marriages.
During the Chinese revolution of 1911, Mao began in a local regiment in Hunan. But his aversion to military service led him to return to school in Changsha.
In 1918 he graduated from the First Provincial Normal School of Hunan. He began to travel with his teacher Yang Changji, his future father-to Beijing where he spent the events of May 4th Movement in 1919.
Yang was a professor at Peking University. With the recommendation of Yang, Mao worked as an assistant librarian at the university under the command of Li Dazhao. Mao register as part-time student at university and took courses and seminars taught by famous intellectuals such as Chen Duxiu, Hu Shi, Qian Xuantong, etc.. During his stay in Beijing, he read a lot so that he could familiarize themselves with the Communist theories. He married his classmate Yang Kaihui, the daughter of Professor Yang.
Employed at the library of Beijing, Mao Zedong later revealed his resentment toward the Chinese scholars, who despised his peasant origin. He remained however a taste for poetry and calligraphy, which became famous later.
Unlike some of his eminent contemporary revolutionaries, such as Zhou Enlai, Mao rejected the idea to study in France: out of the financial aspect of the journey, the idea has been suggested that low linguistic ability of Mao had discouraged the Chinese language is already an obstacle (the dialect of Hunan as its main reference). For example, we note that it has made only once in the Soviet Union in November 1957. He later said that was because he firmly believed that China's problems could be addressed and resolved in China. It is often argued that Mao was very early considered the problems of the peasantry. It appears instead that it is late enough that the peasant problem has become an important issue for him is when the Kuomintang has commissioned articles for journals devoted to the peasant world a semblance of interest, n ' is not even on his own initiative, has left traces in his biography.
On July 23, 1921 at the age of 27, Mao participated in the first session of the Congress of the Communist Party in Shanghai China: it seems he has taken no active part in discussions, meet other participants involved over long as him in the revolutionary cause. Two years later he was elected one of five commissioners of the party's central committee during the third session of Congress.
Mao remained some time in Shanghai, a major city where the CCP tried to promote revolution. But after the party had encountered major difficulties in trying to organize the union movement and its relations with its nationalist ally, the Kuomintang were damaged, Mao lost his illusions to the revolution in Shanghai and returned to Shaoshan. During his homecoming, Mao revive its interest in the revolution after being made aware of the uprisings of 1925 in Shanghai and Guangzhou. He then went to Guangdong, the base of the Kuomintang, and took part in preparing the second national congress of the Nationalist Party.
He worked actively for the Kuomintang, obedient in this regard to the Kremlin, which wanted to develop an extensive network of moles or Communists declared official, yet his commitment to the Kuomintang, opportunist, he has earned to be taxed as a traitor by the Communists. It is a period in his life that is largely canceled by the Chinese official history.
In early 1927, Mao returned to Hunan province, where a communist party meeting, he made a report on the conclusions he drew from the peasant uprisings in the wake of the Northern Expedition. This is considered the point of departure but decisive step towards the application of Mao's revolutionary theories.
From guerrilla revolution
In the first part of his political life, Mao Zedong was influenced by the movement of May 4, 1919, rejection of classical culture, imperialism and the contribution of socialist ideas. In 1927, Mao led the uprising of the fall harvest in Changsha, in Hunan province, as commander in chief. Mao was the head of an army, called the "revolutionary army of workers and peasants", but was defeated and isolated after violent battles. Then the exhausted troops were forced to leave the province of Hunan to the village of Sanwan, located in the mountains of Jinggang Shan in Jiangxi province, where Mao reorganized its forces. Mao also asked that each company has a cell of the party with a commissioner who can give political instructions based on instructions above. This rearrangement military initiated the CCP's absolute control over its military forces and was regarded as having the greatest impact on the fundamental Chinese revolution. Subsequently, Mao moved several times its headquarters in Jinggang Shan.
In Jinggang Shan Mao persuaded two local rebel leaders to submit. Mao was joined by the army of Zhu De, creating the "red army of workers and peasants of China, better known as the Chinese Red Army.
From 1931 to 1934, Mao established the Chinese Soviet Republic in Jiangxi and was elected president of this small republic in the mountainous areas of Jiangxi. There he married He Zizhen - his previous wife Yang Kaihui was arrested and executed in 1930.
In Jiangxi, the authoritarian rule of Mao, especially in military matters, was challenged by the branch of the CPC Jiangxi and officers. Mao's opponents, among which the most important was Li Wenlin, the founder of the branch of the CPC and the Red Army in Jiangxi, opposed to agrarian policies of Mao and his proposals for reform of the local branch of the party and officers of the army. Mao reacted first by accusing his opponents of opportunism and kulaks and suppressed in a systematic manner. The number of victims is estimated at several thousands and could reach 186 000 (ref: China: The forgotten archipelago by Jean-Luc Domenach, pg 47.) Thanks to terrorism, the authority of Mao and his dominance was reinforced Jiangxi .
Jung Chang and Jon Halliday estimate that its height, the Chinese Soviet Republic covering some 150 000 km2 and a population of ten million inhabitants. They also indicate that just the central area of Jiangxi and Fujian, the communist regime did in three years, 700 000 deaths (murders, suicides, forced labor ,...), or 20% of the population.
Mao, with the help of Zhu De, built a modest but effective army, and undertook experiments in rural reform and government, and offered a refuge for Communists fleeing the rightist purges in the cities. The methods of Mao are normally regarded as those of a guerrilla, but Mao made a distinction between guerrilla (youji zhan) and Mobile warfare (yundong zhan).
Mao's guerilla war or his mobile was resting on a red army had a weapons training and ridiculous but included poor farmers encouraged by revolutionary passions and having faith in the communist utopia.
In the 1930s, there were no fewer than ten regions considered "Soviet areas" under the control of the CCP and the number of soldiers of the Red Army was close to one hundred miles. The proliferation of "Soviet region" surprised and annoyed Chiang Kai-shek, chairman of the Kuomintang, which launched five campaigns against the communist territory. Over one million Kuomintang soldiers were involved in these campaigns, four of which have been rejected by the Red Army led by Mao.
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