Louis Dominique Cartouche, Paris

Louis Dominique Cartouche
Dominique Louis Garthausen said cartridge (or Bourguignon but Lamarre), born in 1693 and died November 28, 1721, was a thief and a gang leader (one of these bands in the Court of Miracles, their lair, which plagued in Paris in the early eighteenth century, under the Regency).

The beginnings of a robber
Born in 1693 in Paris, Rue du Pont aux Choux, son of Jean Garthausen (or Garthauzsien), a former mercenary German from Hamburg became a wine merchant in the neighborhood after the Courtille servant to the Marquis of Beuzeville Luzerne (in Normandy), Louis Dominique Cartouche is known, by derivation of his surname to Gartouse then Gartouche. As a child he studied at the College de Clermont, a Jesuit, before being quickly expelled. He trains so cutting a few scholarships, and young lovers, steals for his beautiful gifts that he offers: snuff, handkerchiefs, candy boxes, flies, sword guards ... At the age of eleven years, Following a severe reprimand from his father was very particular about honesty (he would have obtained a letter of character for him interned in a reformatory after a flight), the young leave the parental home cartridge.

He is rescued by a band of gypsies who taught him card tricks, fortune telling and technical petty theft. With some Galichon (soon to be arrested), he steals bottles of wine and distilled spirits and trains at the sword. A gentleman from time lackey Cropte The Marquis de Saint-Acre and lieutenant general of the armies of the king, he stands by his dexterity in the game The cheater is still fired. With all these small things, it becomes locally famous and became head of a small strip in Normandy. Spotted by the authorities, it has a long role as an informant for the police lieutenant Argenson, before leaving for the army. After serving some time, especially as a military recruiter, he surrounded himself with former soldiers who form the core of his new band on his return to Paris. It then takes the head of a troop of a hundred bandits, men and women who daily commit robberies and murders in the capital.

An appealing gang leader
Wanting to give his band a good organization inspired by the military, with hierarchy and discipline, cartridge was elected leader after a remarkable speech to his troops. Yet, with her long brown hair, his thin face, her large dark eyes and small size, it is called L'Enfant and Le Petit. Two criminal groups well separated officiate then: one, under his direct authority, the latter under the command of Gruthus du Chatelet, "said Le Lorrain, a minor nobleman former soldier of the French guards. These bands "cartouchiens" together individuals from diverse backgrounds: there is even Balagny said the Capuchin, a family member's first valet de chambre to the Regent. Indeed, some historians wonder, given the quality of some of his accomplices, if the bandit is not manipulated by the power. At the time, gossip even say that the Regent would have met and intimidated, it would hesitate to order his arrest ... In any case, it has many indicators, particularly among Forgetters, and creates a effective network of receivers and dealers.

Intelligent, witty and acrobatic, cartridge, which redistributes some of the profits of his crimes for the little guy, soon gained a certain respect among a population exasperated by the corruptions of the time. Because he only attacks the wealthy, like a bandit of honor taking revenge from the rich to the poor. One day he saves from suicide merchant ruined by paying creditors then it flies! One night he picks up a sword that the Regent had to offer, realizing that it is false, it makes the following comment: "At first the kingdom thief who tried to injure Cartridge his colleague. His followers are not to be outdone in the mischief. At a carnival, they walk a cart dummies representing the forces of order to allow onlookers to whip them at will. His band became famous, among other facts, for his attacks coaches making the journey from Versailles to Paris as well as jewelry stores or plundering incursions in mansions. But the masterstroke is the taking of one million three hundred thousand shares of Law's system, street Quincampoix (1720).

Ink is also a seducer several anecdotes attest. One evening, he entered the apartment of a duchess. It expects to be burgled. But the bandit just ask him to order a dinner washed down with champagne. After the meal, the hostess was complimented on the quality of food, but it is alleged the wrong drink. A few days later, the Duchess received a case of champagne quality. Another evening is Helen of Courtenay, Marchioness Bauffremont, which saw the arrival of the famous thief by his fireplace. The latter asked him to indicate the output with the largest corrections. It even takes care to put ashes and embers in the fireplace to not spoil the carpet. As compensation for the inconvenience caused, the intruder is then carried to Madame de Courtenay a letter of apology, a diamond, "which was estimated at two thousand crowns" and ... "a pass to show off thieves by night. On March 30, 1720, his former wife Cartridge accomplice, Marie Antoinette Nero (the deed is notarized). However, he retained his success with women and has several mistresses, as it will reveal when questioned, citing "his sister Grey", the "reigning Sultana, a fishmonger in the hall ...

In recent times, it is estimated that the tape cartridge has nearly two thousand members. The bandit is so much fear qu'adulé. An accomplice, wishing one day to denounce it, is insulting to the other and then slaughtered on his orders. Ink had himself killed by four times, sometimes in cold blood, especially in the case of an archer on his heels. However, the vice eventually tighten and the police on his trail. In September 1719, three accomplices were arrested and ordered to denounce their leader. It also stops the provincial association with him. His brothers are caught and tortured. He himself was arrested for the first time in December 1720, but he managed to escape. On May 16, 1721, the Regent ordered his arrest. Cartridge escaped with so much skill to all research (this is where he's impersonating Jean Bourguignon), which proposed a reward to those who will put in the hands of Justice (July 19, 1721 ). Under the action of the Commissioner Bizoton, the band begins to rout and treachery are multiplying.

The arrest and execution
Gruthus Betrayed by his partner, and that saves his skin (and perhaps also denounced by a woman), he was arrested at dawn as the gun tavern, Lower Courtille, 14 October 1721. Legend has it that awakened in time, missing his successful escape, but was "betrayed" by a dog that howls (see The Rime of cartridge). Led barefoot Chatelet, there is held chained in a cage to prevent any escape. It is then subjected to the curiosity of Paris high society: the actors of the French theater review for the best play and the first ladies of distinction, which the marshal's Boufflers and the Regent himself, visited him . On 21 October he was imprisoned at the Conciergerie on the decision of Parliament who wants to stop the public interest. It faces judicial proceedings taken by Councillor Arnaud Bouëx, master of requests whose father had been murdered on the road to Bordeaux. Cartridge denies everything, including her marital status, refuses to recognize his mother, and claim they know how to read or write. On 26 November, it is subject to the extraordinary and suffered "torture boots". Despite his silence, he was sentenced to death.

The next day, rainy day of execution, surrounded by 200 archers and not seeing his companions arrive although they had vowed to liberate it, Cartridge, probably out of spite or anger, intends to make a confession. Brought before the judge, he reveals many things and gives his accomplices during eighteen hours. The trial will follow in his statements until 1723: over 350 people will be arrested for their links with the gang leader, whose staff after miss Louise Elizabeth, daughter of the Regent. But cartridge is not saved so far: it is broken on the wheel in the Place de Greve, Paris, November 28, 1721. Just before the execution, meted out by Sanson son, he cries: "I am unhappy. My father and my mother are good people. The following days, his corpse was exposed in a shack and the curious pay to see his body. Balagny follows on the scaffold, then his brother Evelyn, aged 15 years, and still other accomplices. His acolytes are lucky to finish galleys, as his second brother Francis Anthony.

The scheme breathes is that some names similar cartridges are used corridors of power. Yet, quite to the news of his arrest and disappearance, the legend begins cartridge. His death at age 28 makes a hero martyr of royal power and the rich. His story is reproduced in various forms: poetry, popular songs (The Lament cartridge) and even plays the French Comedie (Cartridge or thieves Legrand, October 1721) and the Comédie-Italienne ( Harlequin Cartridge Riccoboni father said Lelio). In 1723, Nicolas Grandval published a poem entitled cartridge or vice punished. Subsequently, his biography, often romanticized, is often reprinted throughout the nineteenth century and is well complemented by images of Epinal. His death mask is now in the City Museum of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.

The Lament Cartridge
Finally cartridge is taken
Avecque mistress
They say he fled
For a tour of flexibility
A dog did r'pincer
From the morning!

We put him in jail
With a very good drill,
No knife or scissors
Neither hammer or sickle
Their hands have made a hole
In the neighbor!

He said the question
"I'm not Cartridge
I am Jean Bourguignon
I fear not your showers
I Lorrain nation
I Lorrain "

He was taken Thursday
Place de Greve
Everything was so full
What everyone bursts.
Then they brought it out
From prison

Climbing the stairs
From City Hall
He said gonfalier
"I'm stupid Friend
Give me a glass of wine
My dear friend "

They say he accused
Large number of persons
Foreign countries
Women, men also
He was executed

Read also Jack the Ripper

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