Arnold Schwarzenegger Encyclopedia
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (born on 30 July 1947 in Thal, a small village near Graz, Austria) is a body builder, actor, businessman and politician Austrian-American.
Nicknamed the "Austrian Oak" during his years of culture, then "Arnie," "Arnold" or "Schwarzy" during his career as an actor, and more recently "the Gouvernator" (mixing words of Governor and Terminator) , he was universally known by becoming one of the greatest bodybuilders in history, including five titles of Mr. Universe and seven Mr. Olympia titles. His exceptional physical he opened the door to Hollywood, where he became one of the biggest stars of action movies, with films such as Conan the Barbarian, Terminator, Predator and True Lies, but also comedies like Twins or Race the toy.
Politically with the Republican Party is on 17 November 2003, the 38th Governor of the State of California, as was Ronald Reagan. It is re-elected on 7 November 2006. In 2004 and 2007, it is part of the Time 100, ranking by Time magazine's 100 most influential people in the world. On 18 February 2009, he announced his return to the big screen especially in the film The Expendables of Sylvester Stallone.
Childhood and adolescence
Arnold Schwarzenegger was born on 30 July 1947 in Thal bei Graz - or Thal - in Austria, a small village near Graz, the capital of Styria  and spent most of his youth. His baptismal name is Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger. His father, Gustav Schwarzenegger (1907-1972), is a former officer of the Austrian army while his mother, Aurelia Jadrny (1922-1998) was a war widow with a son from his first marriage, Meinhard. He grew up in a Catholic family who goes to church every Sunday. Gustav Schwarzenegger became a member of the Nazi party and its paramilitary arm, the Sturmabteilung (SA) after the Anschluss in 1938. Arnold's parents were married on 20 October 1945, while a 38-year Gustav and Aurelia 23. In 1947, his father is allowed to become police commissioner because he did not commit a war crime.
The eldest son, Meinhard is a favorite of their father while Arnold was educated in a strict. Schwarzenegger said that his father had "no patience to listen and understand their problems ... it was like a wall, a real wall". In an interview with Fortune in 2004, Schwarzenegger said he had suffered "what we now call child abuse" by her father. "My hair was learned. I was beaten with belts. As the kid from next door. It was like that. Many children were so broken by their parents, it was in the German-Austrian mentality. They would not create individuals. Everything was just a matter of conformity. I was one of those who did not conform and whose will could not be broken. I became a rebel. Whenever I was beaten and told me that "you can not do this", I said "it will not last long because I'm going from here. I want to be rich. I want to be someone ". Arnold has a good relationship with his mother and he remained in contact with her until his death. At school, Schwarzenegger was "about average", but is noted for its "cheerful, happy and exuberant." Lack of money is a problem in the Schwarzenegger home and remembers that one of the important moments of his youth is the purchase of a refrigerator by his family.
On 20 May 1971, his brother Meinhard died in a car accident, depressed and drunk. Arnold does not attend his funeral but takes over the education of Patrick, son of 3 years of his brother and his girlfriend Erika Knapp. His father Gustav died one year later of a stroke. Arnold does not at his funeral. In the movie Pumping Iron, Arnold said he could not go to his father's funeral because he was in the midst of training for a big crop.
In 1953, at the age of 6 years, he dreams of becoming a champion after attending with his father in Graz in the inauguration of a new swimming pool by the former Olympic champion Johnny Weissmuller. Child, Schwarzenegger tried many sports, but he developed a passion for the particular culture (bodybuilding) to 1960, at age 13, after his football coach leads the team in a session of weight training. To 14 years, it provides what its future life. His father wanted him to become a policeman, his mother make a school. One day he noticed a window in the cover of a magazine which is a muscular man and dressed in warrior from ancient times. He bought the magazine, which traces the life of Reg Park, a former English bobybuilder became Mr. Universe and actor who made his fortune by founding an empire in the sport. Park It takes as a model and decides to follow the same path of becoming Mr. Universe, then a movie star and rich. In 1961, he met former Mr. Austria Kurt Marnul, who invited him to come train in the Athletic Union gym in Graz. His passion led him to go there cause even on weekends when it is closed. At that time, he said to his father: "I want to be the best built man in the world, then I want to go to America and be an actor." He frequented the cinemas and also his idols are actors Reg Park, Steve Reeves and Johnny Weissmuller. In 1963, he arrived 2nd at a minor competition held in Graz in Steira Hof Hotel. In 1964, his father, very concerned by the pervasive passion for Arnold "the least popular sport in Austria, he was forbidden to go more than three times per week in training, but this one bypasses this limitation by building his own room at home.
In 1965, he won the Austrian championship junior raised weight (1965 Austrian Jr. Weightlifting Championship) and meets with Franco Columbu who become long-time friend. He returned just after the Austrian army, under the military service of one year, mandatory for all Austrian men aged 18 years. His parents hope that this will put an end to his interest in bodybuilding. During the years of military service, he won the Junior Mr. Europe. To participate in this competition it is the wall of the barracks and he is punished for his unauthorized absence, but he nevertheless won the respect of his superiors.
A year later, in 1966, he won the title of Mr. Europe and impress both the judges thereof him to give him the ticket to participate in the NABBA Amateur Mr. Universe in London, the prestigious bodybuilding competition . A week after the title, he won one of the best built man of Europe (Best Built Man of Europe) competition organized by a rival of Mr. Europe. The federation cancels its offer and then Arnold should start saving to buy a ticket to London. Thal he left his hometown and share Putzinger Gym to train to Munich where he rents a small apartment and spends his time between his own training and stewardship of the room. There is sometimes the household to pay its contribution. It takes the first plane to participate in the Mr. Universe in London. There he acquired the nickname "the Austrian Oak" (or "Styrian Oak"), partly because of its impressive pattern (107kg to 1.85m) and a history of ups made at the top of an oak tree on the banks of Thalersee. Sometimes 2nd at the first major competition, behind Yorton Chester, which has a greater muscle definition. He would later say: "The Mr. Universe title was my ticket to America - the land of opportunities where I could become a star and a rich man". Still in London, invited by his friend Wagg Bennett, he participated in his first exhibition of bodybuilding. Wagg, who announces that he must learn to become a showman, he learns the most important points of posing, and introduces music in her routine.
In 1967, Arnold has set aside enough money to buy the Putzinger Gym, and through advertising in its second place for the amateur Mr. Universe title, the number of contributors increased from 70 to 200. He trains differently, inventing new exercises to improve the definition which had missed the previous year. He participated again in the Amateur Mr. Universe in London and won her first major title against Dennis Tinnerino, becoming the youngest Mr. Universe in history, at the age of 20 years.
Departure for the United States
In 1968, he won the Stone Lifting Contest in Munich, and proves that the bodybuilders are strong men. He won the 1st particularly European professional title of Mr. Universe NABBA (National Amateur Bodybuilders Association). Behind the scenes of the competition, he met Joe Weider, who presides over the press that specializes in bodybuilding and, impressed, invited him to come to compete in the USA. In September 1968, at age 21, he moved to the United States, with very little money in his pocket and a level of English rather low. Surprised by the American competitors, more slender, it happens only 2nd behind Frank Zane in his first Mr. Universe American. Joe Weider agreed to sponsor for one year. In exchange, he uses the name and Arnold's face for advertising purposes. Weider sends train at Gold's Gym in Venice Beach, Santa Monica, where all the best bodybuilders of the time train. During this period, he becomes the friend of the professional wrestler Superstar Billy Graham. He also developed a case of sales of dietary supplements sold under the name "Arnold Strong".
In 1969, he met Barbara Outland Baker, then a waitress in a restaurant located near the Gold's Gym with whom he lives as a couple until their separation in 1974. The couple meets 6 to 8 months after the arrival of Arnold in the United States. At their first appointment, they look at the Apollo landing on the moon on television. They share an apartment in Santa Monica for three and a half years and having little money, they go to the beach every day and have barbecues in the garden. Baker said Arnold is a self-made man as much as possible to be - he has never received any encouragement from his parents, his family, his brother. It was just his immense determination and charisma ". In his memoirs of 1977, Arnold: The Education of a Bodybuilder, Schwarzenegger tells about Barbara: "It was a balanced woman who wanted an ordinary life, and strong. I was not a balanced man and I hated the idea of an ordinary life ". In an interview in 2003, when Schwarzenegger defends against some attacks - but he particularly blamed for having treated homosexuals as "fags" in a 1977 interview for the magazine Oui - Schwarzenegger described Baker as "a joyful personality, totally charismatic, adventurous and athletic "but said that at the end of their relationship, it had become" unbearable, the world around him ". In 2006 she published her memoirs, with a preface by Schwarzenegger in Arnold and Me: In the Shadow of the Austrian Oak.
In July 1977, he met in Venice Beach, Sue Moray, an assistant hairdresser in Beverly Hills. According to this, they have a free "We were faithful when we were both in LA ... but when he was out of town, we were free to do what we wanted. " A month later, Schwarzenegger met Maria Shriver of the Kennedy family. He has a relationship with both women until August 1978, when Sue Moray, who knows his relationship with Shriver, fixed him with an ultimatum to choose between them . Maria Shriver Schwarzenegger chooses.
Became a U.S. citizen in 1983, he married April 26 1986 in Hyannis, Massachusetts with Maria Shriver, TV journalist and daughter of R. Sargent Shriver, former United States Ambassador to France and candidate for the vice-presidency of the United States in 1972, and Eunice Kennedy, sister of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy. The ceremony led by the revered John Baptist Riordan takes place at the Roman Catholic Church of St. Francis Xavier. Caroline Bouvier Kennedy, cousin of the bride was maid of honor while Franco Columbu has witnessed Schwarzenegger. The couple has four children:
* Katherine Eunice, born on 13 December 1989
* Christina Maria, born on 23 July 1991
* Patrick Arnold, born 18 September 1993
* Christopher Sargent, born 27 September 1997
Schwarzenegger begins his extraordinary journey through the cultures (bodybuilding). After the title of Junior Mr. Europe in 1965, he won the following year at the age of 19 years under Mr. Europe and Best Built Man in Europe. He later participates in numerous competitions and won many titles, including 5 Mr. Universe (4 - NABBA (England), 1 - IFBB (USA)) and 7 Mr. Olympia competition ultimate discipline. This record 7 Mr. Olympia was beaten until much later, by Lee Haney, where won his 8th consecutive title in 1991, Ronnie Coleman won his 8th title in 2005.
Schwarzenegger said that "during the height of his career, his calves were 50.8 centimeters in circumference, thighs 72.4 cm, height 86.4 cm, 144.8 cm his chest and his arm 55.9 cm.
The purpose of Schwarzenegger is to become the largest builder in the world, which means he must win the title of Mr. Olympia. At its first attempt in 1969, it fails in the final, 4 points to 3 against, facing the Cuban champion Sergio Oliva, nicknamed "The Myth" and winner of the previous 3 years. This will be his first and only defeat in a Mr. Olympia. He takes his revenge on Oliva the following year and won her 1st Mr. Olympia in 1970 thanks to a superior muscle definition, making him at 23 years, the younger Mr. Olympia in history, a record still unbeaten.
He continued to perform the victories at the following competitions in 1971, 1972, 1973 and 1974. In 1971 Mr. Olympia competition was held for the first time outside New York, Paris, exactly the same day the NABBA Universe held in London. Arnold, faithful to participate in the IFBB Mr. Olympia, while others prefer to avoid champions and participate in the NABBA. In 1972, Arnold and Sergio will deliver a tight duel in Essen in Germany. Schwarzenegger wins his 3rd title by decision of the judges, 4 against 3. In 1973, he won his 4th title in a row in New York against Franco Columbu and Serge Nubret. This victory is considered relatively easy, but the rise among young professionals Ferrigno promises a great fight for the following year. In 1974, the competition takes place at Madison Square Garden in New York. Lou Ferrigno, with a height of 1m95 and weighs 120 pounds, is the biggest opponent Arnold had ever faced. However, he won his 5th title, but rumors about his retirement from competitive flow.
In 1975, a few months before the competition, filmmakers George Butler and Robert Fiore convinced participate in order to film his training in Pumping Iron, a documentary film that will have a significant impact and help to popularize bodybuilding and awareness Schwarzenegger. This just made an appearance in the film Stay Hungry Bob Rafelson, which won him the 1977 Golden Globe for best actor beginning. He lost much weight and only three months to prepare for the competition. It is nevertheless at its best, though lighter, and won its 6th consecutive title by beating Lou Ferrigno and Serge Nubret in the category of over 91 kg (200 pounds), and Franco Columbu, who won the under 91 kg, for unified the title. He then announced his retirement from competition.
Schwarzenegger turns a few minor films and out of sporting retirement to participate in the 1980 edition of Mr. Olympia which takes place in Australia. Thanks to his training for the role of Conan the Barbarian where he was running, horseback riding or handling a sword, he feels fit enough to try to win the competition one last time. His involvement is a surprise, because it does not announce his intentions publicly. Some see the train but think that for the purposes of film when they see the plane to Australia, they think just as and official for the IFBB. Only when his name is known that everybody realizes that it will participate in the competition. He won the seventh and the last time Mr. Olympia, with only seven weeks of specific preparation. This victory will be challenged by some observers.
Schwarzenegger is considered one of the major figures in the history of culture and a prestigious competition that bears his name is held annually, the famous Arnold Classic. Schwarzenegger has remained a very active personality in the world of bodybuilding long after his retirement sport, partly because he owned gyms and fitness magazines, and has chaired numerous competitions and awards. For years he wrote a monthly column for magazines Muscle & Fitness and Flex. In 2003, shortly after being elected Governor of California, it is symbolically named editor of both magazines, who agree to donate $ 250 000 each year for various projects of the Governor related to fitness. The magazine MuscleMag International offers a two-page monthly Arnold, nicknamed "the King."
Controversy over the use of steroids
Schwarzenegger has admitted using anabolic steroids in the form when their use was legal. In 1977 he wrote that "steroids were helping to maintain muscle mass during his schemes in the preparation of competition" and "do not use them to increase their muscles."
In 1999, Schwarzenegger has sued Dr. Willi Heeps, German doctor who predicted his early death as a result of a stroke due to his consumption of steroids. As the doctor had never personally examined, he won his trial and received 12 000 dollars in damages. The same year, he filed a complaint against the U.S. newspaper The Globe sensations which had made similar announcements on its future state of health.
According to his spokesman, Schwarzenegger has not used steroids since 1990, from the moment they were declared illegal.
In film, he earned his first role in Hercules in New York (1970) under the name Arnold Strong, his name was considered too complicated. Its benefits are so bad and his Austrian accent so pronounced that it is doubled by an actor.
It was under his real name he made a brief appearance in an episode of the series The Streets of San Francisco. In 1977, he received the Golden Globe trophy awarded to the "best new" for his performance in the film Stay Hungry (1976). The same year, he interprets his own role of culture in the documentary film Pumping Iron, presented at the Festival de Cannes.
Arnold Schwarzenegger is however truly successful film from 1982 with the film Conan the Barbarian (1981) by John Milius, in which he plays Conan Conan, the famous character created by fantasy writer Robert E. Howard. It is definitely propelled action star playing the unforgettable killer android in Terminator (1984) by James Cameron. While it was anticipated at the beginning to interpret the role of Kyle Reese (played by Michael Biehn), Cameron finally assigned the role of the Terminator. Thereafter, Arnold went to blockbusters like Predator (1987) by John McTiernan, Total Recall (1990) by Paul Verhoeven, Running Man and Terminator 2. He signs more muscular films like Commando and confidential The Contract. Unlike his rival and friend Sylvester Stallone, Schwarz also successful in the comedy: it begins in Twins (1988) with Danny De Vito and goes to more success as a cop in kindergarten (1990), Last Action Hero ( 1994) and La Course au jouet (1996).
The late 1990s and early 2000s marked the decline of his acting career: his latest films, like The End of Time (1999), On the eve of the 6th day (2000) and Collateral Damage (2002) are half-failures at the box office and are not welcomed by critics. He still returns with success in embodying a third time the Terminator in Terminator 3: lifting machines. We see still make some guest star appearances in Welcome to the jungle and Le Tour du monde en quatre-eighty days before it is committed to the policy.
Sometimes nicknamed "Schwarzy", he played mostly in action films who put forward his muscular physique. He is competing in this field with Sylvester Stallone. In the film Demolition Man, which is the main actor Sylvester Stallone, it is referred to Arnold Schwarzenegger, as a glance of a star to another. The action of this film takes place in the future, Arnold is quoted as having been elected President of the United States (in contradiction with Article II of the United States Constitution prohibiting those who were not born U.S. citizens to appear). The film Last Action Hero Arnold Schwarzenegger to contain a glance the same: Silverster Stallone is represented on a poster in the character of Terminator.
In 1990, Arnold Schwarzenegger began behind the camera making the episode The exchange of the series Tales from the crypt.
Arnold Schwarzenegger, unlike many Hollywood personalities known to be close to the Democratic Party, has always displayed his Republican party affiliation. In a speech at the Republican National Convention 2004 in New York, Schwarzenegger explained under what circumstances it has positioned itself politically, upon his arrival in the United States of America:
"I finally came here in 1968. What special day was. I remember I arrived here with empty pockets but full of dreams, full of determination, full of desire. The presidential campaign was in full swing. I remember watching the Nixon Presidential duel Humphrey on television. One of my friends speaks German and English translated for me. I heard Humphrey saying things sounding like socialism, which I had just left. But then I heard Nixon speak. He was talking about free enterprise, to cut taxes and strengthen the army. To listen to Nixon speak, it sounded more like a breath of fresh air. I told my friend, I said: "What party is he?". My friend said: "He is a Republican.". I said: "So I am a Republican.". And I've been a Republican ever since. "
The first political post Schwarzenegger was the president (chairman) of the President on Fitness and Sports ( "President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports"), a position he held from 1990 to 1993. He was appointed to this position by the President of the United States at the time George Herbert Walker Bush, who has been nicknamed "Conan the Republican." Schwarzenegger and later, in 1993, served as Chairman ( "Chairman") of the Governor of California on fitness and sports ( "California Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports") during the tenure of Pete Wilson , Republican governor of California from 1991 to 1999.
Election for governor of California in 2003
Arnold Schwarzenegger is one of two candidates from the Republican Party as governor of California in 2003, after the outbreak - to the parliamentary initiative of Republican Darrell Issa - a procedure for removal by popular recall (recall) Gray Davis, the incumbent Democrat since 1999, elected the previous year.
On 7 October 2003, after a campaign marked by confusion and a strong agitation media, Gray Davis was removed by 55.4% of voters, and the second question on the choice of a successor, Schwarzenegger is elected Governor of California by collecting 48.6% of votes (about 4.2 million votes) to end the mandate. In particular, he defeated the Democratic candidate and Cruz Bustamante, Deputy Davis, who received only 31.5% of the vote. 135 candidates had met the conditions to apply (collect 65 signatures of support and deposit a check for 500 dollars 3): among them, independent Arianna Huffington, the famous chronicler of the political candidates and fanciful, like Larry Flynt The media magnate pornographic, Gary Coleman, the former young star of the television series "Arnold and Willy", Mary Carey, star of the film X, etc.. The voter turnout stood at 60%, against 51% in November 2002 for the previous election. Despite accusations of sexual harassment and misconduct misogynist made during the campaign, Schwarzenegger has managed to convince 42% of women and 49% of men. Favorite in the polls, following the only public debate of the campaign on 24 September 2003, he also surfed the huge wave of unpopularity of the outgoing governor, however, supported by former President Bill Clinton. According to Alex Cooke, director of the documentary Arnold Franco-British to conquer the West (How Arnold Won the West, 2004), dedicated to this election, Schwarzenegger has turned the election that brought him to power in the show based entirely on its status as a Hollywood film star. Money, fame and marketing have dominated the election campaign, to the detriment of political ideas, the Schwarzenegger said, moreover, essentially based on the denunciation of the excesses of spending and taxes attributed to the outgoing government. The procedure of "recall" is also seen as an attempt of the Republicans to take control of the post of governor of one of the most important Union, in view of the Federal presidential election of 2004.
Schwarzenegger takes office as governor in the Capitol of the State of California in Sacramento, November 17 2003. The inauguration ceremony was opened by Vanessa Lynn Williams, his partner in the movie Eraser, singing the American national anthem. Other stars were invited Danny DeVito, Rhea Perlman, Dennis Miller and Rob Lowe (only Miller is a Republican).
His first words as governor were as follows:
"Today is a new day for California. I did not attend the election to do things the same way they have always been made. My main concern is to restore your confidence in the government of California ... This election was not held to replace a man. It was not held not to replace the majority party in place. It was held to change the entire political landscape of our state."
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